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FACIAL AESTHETICS

These days, utilizing the most advanced technology available it is possible to safely and effectively reverse signs of aging and naturally enhance facial features. It is also possible to remove facial defects such as deficiencies and scarring. At Sydney Aesthetic Smiles and Skinour injectors are highly trained (certified AADFA  http://www.aadfa.net and FBI  http://www.theinstituteoffacialbeauty.com/Default.aspx ) and the highest standards are followed. By using safe and Minimal Invasive products and techniques it is possible to safely and efficiently deliver Maximum Results.

Basically, dermal fillers are used to fill out areas of the face while BTx A (Botox and Dysport) is used to relax muscles and smooth out wrinkles. We only use the latest generation monodensified dermal fillers (Anteis http://www.anteis.com/AestheticDermatology/index.php ) made in Switzerland and the newer latest generation muscle relaxant, “Dysport” http://abcnews.go.com/Health/botox-dysport-face-off-crows-feet/story?id=13888299  (as opposed to “Botox”). Pricing per mL of filler depends on the density used but generally is between $600 and $900 and Dysport is $6 per unit.

How Do Dermal Fillers Work?
Dermal fillers are composed of Hyaluronic Acid (HA) which is basically a naturally occurring very large sugar molecule found in skin and lost with age. This heavy molecule attracts an enormous amount of water and keeps the skin plumped up, diminishing the appearance of lines and wrinkles and filling out volume deficiencies. Together with loss of collagen and elastin, the loss of HA results in shriveled skin and an aged look. Dermal Fillers are thus a very popular method of naturally replacing lost volume in the skin with the result of a softer, more youthful appearance. Some of the common popular brand names are Juvederm, Restylane, Perlane and Esthelis. Dermal Fillers mimic the body’s own fillers and are biodegradable lasting from one to three years.

Researchers in France have recently found that Hyaluronic Acid dermal fillers do more than fill; they stimulate the formation of pro-collagen and collagen in the skin. The findings were published in the Journal of Dermatological Science in Jan 2013.

HOW DOES DYSPORT WORK?

Dysport and Botox are forms of purified Botulinum toxin protein (BtxA) and have been proven safe to use in humans for many years as an injectable purified medicine because it is used in such small quantities and injected directly into specific sites.

BtxA blocks the release of a neurotransmitter (a chemical messenger) known as acetylcholine from nerve cells. Acetylcholine normally transmits nerve impulses to muscle cells, causing them to contract and pull on skin, resulting in wrinkles. About 2 to 7 days after the injections, the lines and wrinkles that are normally caused by certain facial expressions start to disappear. Because BtxA therapy targets specific, individual muscles, the ability to form most facial expressions should not be affected. Because the nerve fibres usually regenerate after a few months, the effect is only temporary  (usually 6 months). With continued use though, the effects may start to last longer. Btx A can also be used to help prevent migraine headaches in certain people with chronic migraine.
  

For more information.

http://www.sasdental.com.au/education-p.php#perfectface

http://www.sasdental.com.au/education-f.php#facialproportion

http://www.sasdental.com.au/education-g.php#goldenrule


FACIAL PROPORTION

Natural beauty follows mathematical laws of Harmony
We can divide the face into proportions where th elower face height or Vertical Dimensionis a very important component in total facial aesthetics
The lower face can shrink with age especially with night time grinding (see Bruxism)
The utilization of high tech equipment and minimal intervention(MID)principles allows us at Sydney Aesthetic Smiles to change facial profiles, improve lines and wrinkles and fill sunken lips (see: SmileGallery/ComplexReconstruction)

The Golden Ratioor Divine Proportioncan be seen in the proportions of the face:

facial-proportion_01 facial-proportion_02 facial-proportion_03
Vertical Proportion Transverse Proportion External Proportion
  1. facial-proportion_04Vertically – TheSacred Cutbetween the eyes and chin is where the lips meetIf the corner of the nose to bottom of the chin is 1, then the corner of the nose to hairline is 1.618
  2. Transverse – The width of the mouth and nose are in Golden Proportion
  3. External - The head forms a Golden Rectangle
  4. The Fibonacci Spiral is also reflected in the ear
  5. Even the dimensions of our teeth are based on Phi:
    • The two front teeth form a Golden Rectangle
    • The ratio of width of the central to the width of the lateral is also Phi
    • The ratio of the width of the smile to the width between the canine teeth is alsoclose to Phi and favours a broad smile ie wide intercanine width
  6. facial-proportion_05facial-proportion_06

  7. Nose-Lips-Chin Position - is evaluated using Rickett's E (esthetic) line drawn from the nasal tip to the pogonion. The lips should lie just posterior to this line with the upper lip approximately twice as far from the line as the lower lip
  8. The lower lip should be slightly fuller than the upper lip. When relaxed and with teeth in occlusion, the lips should approximate one another with an interlabial gap of 3 mm being the upper limit
  9. When smiling, there should be no gum showing and no more than two thirds of the maxillary incisors exposed

FACTS AND FIGURES

  1. 100% of decay is caused by acid producing bacteria Read more
  2. 100% increase in risk of heart attack if you have gum disease Read More
  3. 0% of the population like to kiss someone with bad breath Read More
  4. 33% of all cancer deaths are related to smoking
  5. 10 years the number of years SAS Dental guarantee our implants for
  6. 50% the reduction in decay in school-aged children seen in the last 20 years due to fluoridation
  7. 94% the percentage of people with recurring headaches who actually have migraines
  8. 50kg the amount of sugar the average westerner consumes per year
  9. 10 tips for better sleep
  10. No.1 how high men and women judge each other on their smile
  11. 93% of people with gum disease are at risk of diabetes
  12. 80% of adults have gum disease
  13. 500% increase in risk of premature death if you have diabetes and bleeding gums
  14. 62% increase in risk for pancreatic and kidney cancer with gum disease
  15. 3 X’s people with gum disease are 3 times as likely to die from stroke
  16. 90% of bad breath comes from the mouth
  17. 45o the best angle to hold your toothbrush at the gum line
  18. 1,100% women with gume disease are 11x more likely to be diagnosed with breast cancer
  19. 12% the number of American adults who floss daily
  20. 28-53% the amount of plaque removed on average with each brushing
  21. 45% percentage of adults unhappy with the appearance of their teeth
  22. 300% people who floss infrequently are 3 times more likely to get stomach cancer says NY University
  23. 10 spoons of sugar in every can of Coke
  24. 2 litres the average amount of spit our salivary glands make a day
  25. 370 mill. years ago hiccups originated when our ancestors lived in oceans and breathed with gills
  26. 40% of all bottled water is made from tap water
  27. 25,000 the number of teeth a snail can have
  28. 32 the number of teeth an adult has
  29. 20 the number of teeth a child has

 

FEES

Why is dental treatment expensive?

When you consider:

  • the minimum seven years of University training
  • the skill and dedication required
  • set up and ongoing costs and
  • the technology used

dentistry is not expensive

A dental fee reflects the cost of a highly trained and skilled professional treating your teeth in a hygienic, comfortable environment.

As well, fees represent the costs of the up-to-date equipment and materials, staff, laboratory fees, infection control measures, premises, utilities and furnishings

At SAS Dental we can supply you with:

  • A list of typical fees charges for common procedures
  • A written treatment plan with an itemised estimate or quote for any major dental work required

Please let reception know before your appointment

At Sydney Aesthetic Smile swe have Payment Plansand finance available

We accept all major credit cards and have Eftpos. If you are in a Fund can process your account on the spot through Hicaps
Health Fund generally rebate between 50%  and 75% of the fee. You must pay the balance 

All fees charged must be settled on the day unless a prior arrangement has been made with reception

Remember that the treatment of OralDiseaseis extremely important with lifestyle and SystemicHealthissues at stake

We cannot stress enough the importance of seeing your dentist for OralHealth Assessment(see Comprehensive Examination) and treatment

The cost for basic OralHealthis minimal when compared to the possible local and systemic cost of ignoring oral disease

Being professionals many dentists will consider financial difficulties when treating basic Oral Pathologies

It has been calculated that a dentist who follows correct Sterilization procedures, uses quality equipment and materials and has well trained staff has expenses of at least $5 per minute with some practices being much higherwww.dentistryiq.com/index/.../dental...9/.../the-real-cost-of-dentistry.html

FLEXIBLE DENTURES

We use original Valplast dentures. See valplast.com

flexible-dentures

We at SAS Dental consider Valplast flexible dentures to be the better option when deciding on denture strength and aesthetics.

There is no also the biological security knowing there are no acrylic monomers nor metals in the dentures meaning no chance of allergies or sensitivities.

There are also fewer steps in the treatment process because preparation of natural teeth is unnecessary.

FLOSSING

Dental Floss removes plaque and food stuck between teeth andis an important part of oral hygiene

Putrefying food particles and bacteria in plaque result in guminflamation and acid attack on enamel and dentine

Flossing is recommended at least once per day, preferably before bedtime

Usually one foot of floss is used

The floss is then held at the ends between the middle finger and thumb and wrapped around the middle finger.

It is then held tightly to make taut, and then gently moved up and down between each tooth.

It is important to curve the floss around each tooth

There are many varieties of floss on the market but the one SAS Dentalrecommends is:

  • J & J Reach “Clean Paste”

Interdental Brushes are very good alternatives to floss

FLOURIDATION

There are no other cost-effective preventive schemes that benefit the total community like water fluoridation. Health conscious parents and individuals outside fluoridated areas can use personal fluoride supplements such as tablets and drops. But they do not work as well as fluoride in drinking water, are more expensive, require continuous motivation and compliance, and only reach a small part of the population. There is also the danger of accidental overdose with any tablets or drops.

How much fluoride is in fluoride toothpaste?

Children's toothpaste contains between 400 and 500ppm (parts per million). One part per million is the equivalent of one milligram per litre. Adult's toothpaste contains between 1000 and 1100ppm. Toothpaste should not be used on children under the age of two years. Over two years of age only a 'pea-sized' smear of toothpaste should be used, as young children have not developed an adequate spit-out mechanism.

What is fluorosis?

Dental fluorosis is seen as small white flecks in the surface enamel of teeth. In minor cases it is usually not visible to patients but in more advanced cases it appears as large white patches or occasional pits in the tooth surface. After some years, stains may penetrate the white patches and they can appear brown.

Generally speaking filters that remove fluoride are: 
Ion Exchange Filters 
Reverse Osmosis Filters    and 
Distillers

Filters That Don't:
Carbon Filters
Ceramic Filters

Are there alternative to water fluoridation?

There are no other cost-effective preventive schemes that benefit the total community like water fluoridation. Health conscious parents and individuals outside fluoridated areas can use personal fluoride supplements such as tablets and drops. But they do not work as well as fluoride in drinking water, are more expensive, require continuous motivation and compliance, and only reach a small part of the population. There is also the danger of accidental overdose with any tablets or drops.

How much fluoride is in fluoride toothpaste?

Children's toothpaste contains between 400 and 500ppm (parts per million). One part per million is the equivalent of one milligram per litre. Adult's toothpaste contains between 1000 and 1100ppm. Toothpaste should not be used on children under the age of two years. Over two years of age only a 'pea-sized' smear of toothpaste should be used, as young children have not developed an adequate spit-out mechanism.

What is fluorosis?

Dental fluorosis is seen as small white flecks in the surface enamel of teeth. In minor cases it is usually not visible to patients but in more advanced cases it appears as large white patches or occasional pits in the tooth surface. After some years, stains may penetrate the white patches and they can appear brown.

Receiving excess doses of fluoride during the formation of teeth causes fluorosis. This can occur by eating or swallowing excessive amounts of toothpaste or exceeding the dose when taking fluoride tablets. It can also occur where there is excess fluoride in natural water supplies or a combination of all three. In extreme or severe cases of fluorosis the teeth are unsightly and may need treatment to improve their appearance.

Water fluoridation alone does not cause fluorosis but it can happen in combination with other sources of fluoride.

See http://www.ada.org.au/OralHealth/flnfront.aspx for more detailed information on fluoride and water fluoridation.

What is water fluoridation?

All water supplies have some natural fluoride in them and the water fluoridation process just involves adding or removing fluoride to the level that protects dental health (one part per million).
It does not involve adding anything to the water that is not already there. There is no chemical difference between fluorides present naturally and that which is added to the water supply.

What are the benefits of water fluoridation?

Water fluoridation was established in Sydney in 1969.

Drinking fluoridated water increases the resistance of teeth to decay, resulting in fewer cavities. This means fewer fillings, fewer extractions, fewer visits to the dentist and lower dental bills - resulting in better smiles, fewer dentures and less pain and suffering.
Fluoridation has been calculated to reduce the number of school or working hours or days that are lost due to dental problems or visits to the dentist.

Fluoridation will also help in the prevention of aesthetic problems associated with decay, especially in the front teeth, problems with discomfort and problems with self-esteem. Fluoridation also indirectly reduces orthodontic problems.

This benefit applies to all teeth (baby and adult) and to all age groups in our community. All teeth, at all ages, benefit as the fluoridated water has a continuous topical action.

Despite the availability of other sources of fluoride (tablets, drops, toothpaste, professional applications), water fluoridation is still shown to be the most appropriate means of reducing tooth decay in the twenty first century. The magnitude of the fluoridation benefits has decreased in recent decades, but they are still in the range of a 20-40% reduction in tooth decay in fluoridated areas.

There is ample evidence that if water fluoridation ceases, the rate of toothdecay increases despite the use of fluoride toothpaste and supplements. The decay rate decreases again when fluoridation is re-introduced.

A community that fluoridates its water today will have teeth with approximately half as many cavities in 10 years’ time.

If I live in a non-fluoridated water area, what amount of fluoride supplement should I take?

Fluoride tablets or drops should be used according to the following guidelines proposed by the Dental Health Committee Discretionary Fluoride Panel of the National Health and Medical Research Council.

Daily fluoride supplements are to be used ONLY in cases where the natural fluoride content of your drinking water supply is less than 0.3 mg per litre.

If you are not sure whether you water supply is fluoridated, check with a local dentist or your local water supply authority.

Daily Fluoride Dosage (in milligrams) by Age Group

Fluoride in Water: mg/litre 6 months - 4 years-   4-8 years-  - 8+ years-

Less than 0.3 mg/litre:                              0.25mg 0.5mg 1.0mg

0.3 - 0.5 mg/litre 0 0.25mg 0.5 mg

More than 0.5 mg/litre 0 0 0

If a day is missed, DO NOT double up the next day. Keep fluoride supplements out of the reach of children.

Individual fluoride tablets should contain no more than 0.5 mg.

2.2 mg of sodium fluoride provides 1.0 mg of fluoride.

When you buy your tablets from the chemist, make sure he or she explains the dosage.

Remember that fluoride in toothpaste should be also taken into account. Children should use only a small amount of child-strength fluoride toothpaste when under fluoride supplements.

Who benefits from water fluoridation?

People of all ages benefit from water fluoridation.

Children benefit from the tooth decay preventive effects of water fluoridation with less tooth decay in their first and second set of teeth. Existing fillings in teeth last longer where water is fluoridated as there is less decay starting again where the filling meets the tooth surface.

The elderly and those with disabilities that prevent adequate cleaning of their teeth (including those in nursing homes), or those who require assistance with tooth brushing, will benefit from water fluoridation. This group is particularly susceptible to decay around the gum line of their teeth and water fluoridation would lower this risk factor.

Water fluoridation reduces decay and lessens the need for dental intervention. Dental treatment creates additional problems for some (e.g. diabetics, haemophiliacs, transplant patients, the immune compromised) for whom a healthy mouth is essential.

Water fluoridation is particularly beneficial in providing a preventive health measure to lower socio-economic groups who may have difficulty in implementing their own preventive care. Public health education has been shown to be effective only in the higher socio-economic groups.

An enormous amount of research has been published on the safety of water fluoridation, including any effects on the older members of the community who may have very few teeth or none at all. This extensive research has revealed no adverse health effects on the elderly or any other age group.

Are there any general side effects?

No. Drinking optimally fluoridated water is not harmful to human health.

Many cities throughout the world have large amounts of natural fluoride in their water supply without water fluoridation. Artificial water fluoridation was introduced over 50 years ago, providing many opportunities to study fluoridation's side effects. The only effects of water fluoridation that have been scientifically proven are those that benefit teeth.

Numerous studies have shown that consumption of fluoride in community water supplies at the level recommended for optimal dental health has no harmful effect in humans. For generations, millions of people have lived in areas where fluoride is found naturally in the drinking water in concentrations as high as or higher than those recommended to prevent tooth decay. Research conducted among these groups confirms the safety of fluoride in the water supply.

Fluoride's safety has been monitored for the past fifty years through over 30,000 studies, and no evidence has ever been found that water fluoridation causes any health side effects.

Has the issue been fully investigated in Australia?

Five major inquiries have addressed the issue of water fluoridation in Australia. Most were prompted by claims that new evidence showed water fluoridation to be either harmful or ineffective. Each investigation took many months to examine all available information.

All the inquiries found the allegations to be unproven and fluoridation to be safe, effective and economical.

These reports are:

  • Report of the Royal Commissioner into the Fluoridation of Public Water Supplies (Hobart, 1968),
  • Report of the Committee of Inquiry into the Fluoridation of Victorian Water Supplies for 1979-80 (Melbourne, 1980),
  • Inquiry into Water Fluoridation in the ACT by the Standing Committee on Social Policy (1991),
  • The National Oral Health Survey 1987-1988 (which provided a database for Australian oral health), and
  • Report by the National Health Medical and Research Council on the Effectiveness of Water Fluoridation (1991). See NHMRC document ‘TheEffectiveness of Water Fluoridation’.

water fluoridation has been praised as one of the top medical achievements of the 20th century,[6]Division of Oral Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, CDC. Achievements in public health, 1900–1999: Fluoridation of drinking water to prevent dental cariesMMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 1999;48(41):933–40

All water supplies have some natural fluoride in them and the water fluoridation process involves adding or removing fluoride to the level that protects dental health (one part per million).
It does not involve adding anything to the water that is not already there. 
There is no chemical difference between fluorides present naturally and that which is added to the water supply.

The argument for fluoride

Fluoride-containing compounds are used in topical and systemic fluoride therapy for preventing tooth decay. They are used for water fluoridation and in many products associated with oral hygiene.[9] Originally, sodium fluoride was used to fluoridate water; however, hexafluorosilicic acid (H2SiF6) and its salt sodium hexafluorosilicate (Na2SiF6) are more commonly used additives, especially in the United States. The fluoridation of water is known to prevent tooth decay[10][11]and is considered by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as "one of 10 great public health achievements of the 20th century".[12][13] In some countries where large, centralized water systems are uncommon, fluoride is delivered to the populace by fluoridating table salt. Fluoridation of water is not without critics, however (see Water fluoridation controversy).[14]

Drinking fluoridated water increases the resistance of teeth to decay, resulting in fewer:

  • cavities,
  • fillings,
  • extractions,
  • dentures
  • andbetter smiles withlower dental bills  and less pain and suffering.

Fluoride is the ion that comes from the naturally occurring element, fluorine.

Fluorine is never encountered in its free state in nature because it combines with other elements as fluoride compounds in the earth. 
Water dissolves these compounds, creating fluoride ions that are present in all water sources, including the oceans.

Fluoride is a potent protector of teeth and reduces the number of cavities an individual will develop in their life by about half.

It does this by making enamel more resistant to the acid attacks of plaque bacteria.

Resistance occurs:
initially when the fluoride is incorporated into the teeth during their formation and 
secondly, as fluoridated water, fluoridated toothpaste and rinses wash over the surface of the erupted teeth.

All water supplies have some natural fluoride in them and the water fluoridation process just involves adding or removing fluoride to the level that protects dental health (one part per million).
It does not involve adding anything to the water that is not already there. There is no chemical difference between fluorides present naturally and that which is added to the water supply.

Natural occurrence

flouridationMany fluoride minerals are known, but of paramount commercial importance arefluorite and fluorapatite. Fluoride is found naturally in low concentration in drinking water and foods. Water with underground sources is more likely to have higher levels of fluoride, whereas the concentration in seawater averages 1.3parts per million (ppm).[4] Fresh water supplies generally contain between 0.01–0.3 ppm, whereas the ocean contains between 1.2 and 1.5 ppm.

Applications

Fluoridation has been calculated to reduce the number of school or working hours or days that are lost due to dental problems or visits to the dentist.

Fluoridation will also help in the prevention of aesthetic problems associated with decay, especially in the front teeth, problems with discomfort and problems with self-esteem. 
Fluoridation also indirectly reduces orthodontic problems.

This benefit applies to all teeth (baby and adult) and to all age groups in our community. All teeth, at all ages, benefit as the fluoridated water has a continuous topical action.

Despite the availability of other sources of fluoride (tablets, drops, toothpaste, professional applications), water fluoridation is still shown to be the most appropriate means of reducing tooth decay in the twenty first century. The magnitude of the fluoridation benefits has decreased in recent decades, but they are still in the range of a 20-40% reduction in tooth decay in fluoridated areas.

There is ample evidence that if water fluoridation ceases, the rate of toothdecay increases despite the use of fluoride toothpaste and supplements. The decay rate decreases again when fluoridation is re-introduced.

A community that fluoridates its water today will have teeth with approximately half as many cavities in 10 years’ time.

Water fluoridation was established in Sydney in 1969.

Brisbane is the only capital city in Australia without it. Canberra and Hobart introduced fluoride in 1964, Perth in 1968, Adelaide in 1971 and Melbourne in 1977. 
Fluoridation is not mass medication any more than other disease prevention health measures. It is not a 'foreign chemical' in a water supply, but a naturally occurring element that reduces dental disease. Along with pasteurisation, water purification, and immunization, fluoridation is considered one of the four most important and successful public health measures of the twentieth century.

The following websites provides extensive information on fluoridation:

www.ada.org.au/oralHealth/fluoridation.aspx

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Water_fluoridation

Water fluoridation is supported by the World Health Organisation (World Health Assembly, 1978), the Australian Dental Association, the Australian Medical Association and the National Health Medical and Research Council.

75% of Australia is currently fluoridated. In 1995, enabling legislation was passed in California for water fluoridation, so virtually all major cities in the United States of America are fluoridated.

CONCLUSION:

Water fluoridation is a safe, equitable, cost-effective public health initiative that responsible state and local governments should implement to reduce dental pain and disease throughout Australia.

Generally speaking filters that remove fluoride are:

  • Ion exchange filters
  • Reverse osmosis filters and
  • Distillers

Filters that don’t are:

  • Carbon filters
  • Ceramic filters

People of all ages benefit from water fluoridation.

Children benefit from the tooth decay preventive effects of water fluoridation with less tooth decay in their first and second set of teeth. Existing fillings in teeth last longer where water is fluoridated as there is less decay starting again where the filling meets the tooth surface.

The elderly and those with disabilities that prevent adequate cleaning of their teeth (including those in nursing homes), or those who require assistance with tooth brushing, will benefit from water fluoridation. This group is particularly susceptible to decay around the gum line of their teeth and water fluoridation would lower this risk factor.

Water fluoridation reduces decay and lessens the need for dental intervention. Dental treatment creates additional problems for some (e.g. diabetics, haemophiliacs, transplant patients, the immune compromised) for whom a healthy mouth is essential.

Water fluoridation is particularly beneficial in providing a preventive health measure to lower socio-economic groups who may have difficulty in implementing their own preventive care. Public health education has been shown to be effective only in the higher socio-economic groups.

An enormous amount of research has been published on the safety of water fluoridation, including any effects on the older members of the community who may have very few teeth or none at all. This extensive research has revealed no adverse health effects on the elderly or any other age group.

Water fluoridation is the most cost-effective and socially equitable method of tooth decay prevention for all members of a community.
Cost varies with the size of the population fluoridated, but averages about $1 per person per year according to American figures (Garcia, 1989). Therefore it is likely to cost less to provide a lifetime of fluoridation to an individual than it costs for a single dental filling.

There has never been a case of an allergy to fluoride. If a person was allergic to fluoride they could not drink present water supplies because all water contains some fluoride. Similarly, because of its natural abundance in nature, fluoride is contained in virtually all food and drinks. People allergic to fluoride would also be allergic to tea, coffee, mineral water, beer  and seawater.

There are no other cost-effective preventive schemes that benefit the total community like water fluoridation. Health conscious parents and individuals outside fluoridated areas can use personal fluoride supplements such as tablets and drops. But they do not work as well as fluoride in drinking water, are more expensive, require continuous motivation and compliance, and only reach a small part of the population. There is also the danger of accidental overdose with any tablets or drops.

Children's toothpaste contains between 400 and 500ppm (parts per million). One part per million is the equivalent of one milligram per litre. Adult's toothpaste contains between 1000 and 1100ppm. Toothpaste should not be used on children under the age of two years. Over two years of age only a 'pea-sized' smear of toothpaste should be used, as young children have not developed an adequate spit-out mechanism.

Regardless of the presence or absence of water fluoridation, or the taking of fluoride supplements, everyone should be encouraged to brush their natural teeth with fluoride toothpaste.

Fluoride toothpaste tubes should carry advice that for children under the age of six years, brushing should be supervised, and only a "pea" sized smear of toothpaste should be placed on the brush. Thorough rinsing is recommended and children should be instructed not to swallow the toothpaste.

Fluoride tablets or drops should be used according to the following guidelines proposed by the Dental Health Committee Discretionary Fluoride Panel of the National Health and Medical Research Council.

Daily fluoride supplements are to be used ONLY in cases where the natural fluoride content of your drinking water supply is less than 0.3 mg per litre.

If you are not sure whether you water supply is fluoridated, check with a local dentist or your local water supply authority.

Daily Fluoride Dosage (in milligrams) by Age Group

Fluoride in Water: mg/litre 6 months   - 4 years-   4-8 years -  - 8+ years-

Less than 0.3 mg/litre:                              0.25mg       0.5mg         1.0mg
0.3 - 0.5 mg/litre                                        0                  0.25mg       0.5 mg
More than 0.5 mg/litre                             0                  0                  0

If a day is missed, DO NOT double up the next day. Keep fluoride supplements out of the reach of children.

Individual fluoride tablets should contain no more than 0.5 mg.

2.2 mg of sodium fluoride provides 1.0 mg of fluoride.

When you buy your tablets from the chemist, make sure he or she explains the dosage.

Remember that fluoride in toothpaste should be also taken into account. Children should use only a small amount of child-strength fluoride toothpaste when under fluoride supplements.

Are there any general side effects?

No. Drinking optimally fluoridated water is not harmful to human health.

Many cities throughout the world have large amounts of natural fluoride in their water supply without water fluoridation. Artificial water fluoridation was introduced over 50 years ago, providing many opportunities to study fluoridation's side effects. The only effects of water fluoridation that have been scientifically proven are those that benefit teeth.

Numerous studies have shown that consumption of fluoride in community water supplies at the level recommended for optimal dental health has no harmful effect in humans. For generations, millions of people have lived in areas where fluoride is found naturally in the drinking water in concentrations as high as or higher than those recommended to prevent tooth decay. Research conducted among these groups confirms the safety of fluoride in the water supply.

Fluoride's safety has been monitored for the past fifty years through over 30,000 studies, and no evidence has ever been found that water fluoridation causes any health side effects.

Five major inquiries have addressed the issue of water fluoridation in Australia. Most were prompted by claims that new evidence showed water fluoridation to be either harmful or ineffective. Each investigation took many months to examine all available information.

All the inquiries found the allegations to be unproven and fluoridation to be safe, effective and economical.

These reports are:

  • Report of the Royal Commissioner into the Fluoridation of Public Water Supplies (Hobart, 1968),
  • Report of the Committee of Inquiry into the Fluoridation of Victorian Water Supplies for 1979-80 (Melbourne, 1980),
  • Inquiry into Water Fluoridation in the ACT by the Standing Committee on Social Policy (1991),
  • The National Oral Health Survey 1987-1988 (which provided a database for Australian oral health), and
  • Report by the National Health Medical and Research Council on the Effectiveness of Water Fluoridation (1991). See NHMRC document ‘TheEffectiveness of Water Fluoridation’.

See http://www.ada.org.au/OralHealth/flnfront.aspx for more detailed information on fluoride and water fluoridation.

Noel Martin, A Father of The Flouride Generation

The argument against

Fluorosis

See http://www.ada.org.au/OralHealth/flnfront.aspx for more detailed information on fluoride and water fluoridation.

Toxicology

Main article: Fluoride poisoning

flouridation-02Reaction of the irreversible inhibitor diisopropylfluorophosphate with a serine protease

Fluoride-containing compounds are so diverse that it is not possible to generalize on theirtoxicity, which depends on their reactivity and structure, and in the case of salts, their solubility and ability to release fluoride ions.

Soluble fluoride salts, of which NaF is the most common, are mildly toxic but have resulted in both accidental and suicidal deaths from acute poisoning.[6] While the minimum fatal dose in humans is not known, a case of a fatal poisoning of an adult with 4 grams of NaF is documented.[21] For Sodium fluorosilicate (Na2SiF6), the median lethal dose (LD50) orally in rats is 0.125 g/kg, corresponding to 12.5 g for a 100 kg adult.[22] The fatal period ranges from 5 min to 12 hours.[21] The mechanism of toxicity involves the combination of the fluoride anion with the calcium ions in the blood to form insoluble calcium fluoride, resulting in hypocalcemia; calcium is indispensable for the function of the nervous system, and the condition can be fatal. Treatment may involve oral administration of dilute calcium hydroxideor calcium chloride to prevent further absorption, and injection of calcium gluconate to increase the calcium levels in the blood.[21]Hydrogen fluoride is more dangerous than salts such as NaF because it is corrosive and volatile, and can result in fatal exposure through inhalation or upon contact with the skin; calcium gluconate gel is the usual antidote.[23]

In the higher doses used to treat osteoporosis, sodium fluoride can cause pain in the legs and incomplete stress fractures when the doses are too high; it also irritates the stomach, sometimes so severely as to cause ulcers. Slow-release andenteric-coated versions of sodium fluoride do not have gastric side effects in any significant way, and have milder and less frequent complications in the bones.[24] In the lower doses used for water fluoridation, the only clear adverse effect is dental fluorosis, which can alter the appearance of children's teeth during tooth development; this is mostly mild and is unlikely to represent any real effect on aesthetic appearance or on public health.[25]

FLUORIDE

Fluoride is the ion that comes from the naturally occurring element, fluorine

Fluorine is never encountered in its free state in nature because it combines with other elements as fluoride compounds in the earth

Water dissolves these compounds, creating fluoride ions that are present in all water sources, including the oceans

Fluoride is a potent protector of teeth and reduces the number of cavities an individual will develop in their life by about half

It does this by making enamel more resistant to the acid attacks of plaque bacteria

Resistance occurs:

initially when the fluoride is incorporated into the teeth during their formation and

secondly, as fluoridated water, fluoridated toothpaste and rinses wash over the surface of the erupted teeth

There has never been a case of an allergy to fluoride. If a person was allergic to fluoride they could not drink present water supplies because all water contains some fluoride. Similarly, because of its natural abundance in nature, fluoride is contained in virtually all food and drinks. People allergic to fluoride would also be allergic to tea, coffee, mineral water, beer and seawater

FLUOROSIS

Dental fluorosis is seen as small white flecks in the surface enamel of teeth. In minor cases it is usually not visible to patients but in more advanced cases it appears as large white patches or occasional pits in the tooth surface. After some years, stains may penetrate the white patches and they can appear brown.

Receiving excess doses of fluoride during the formation of teeth causes fluorosis This can occur by eating or swallowing excessive amounts of toothpaste or exceeding the dose when taking fluoride tablets. It can also occur where there is excess fluoride in natural water supplies or a combination of all three. In extreme or severe cases of fluorosis the teeth are unsightly and may need treatment to improve their appearance.

Water fluoridation alone does not cause fluorosis but it can happen in combination. with other sources of fluoride

Receiving excess doses of fluoride during the formation of teeth causes fluorosis. This can occur by eating or swallowing excessive amounts of toothpaste or exceeding the dose when taking fluoride tablets. It can also occur where there is excess fluoride in natural water supplies or a combination of all three. In extreme or severe cases of fluorosis the teeth are unsightly and may need treatment to improve their appearance.

Dental fluorosis is seen as small white flecks in the surface enamel of teeth. In minor cases it is usually not visible to patients but in more advanced cases it appears as large white patches or occasional pits in the tooth surface. After some years, stains may penetrate the white patches and they can appear brown.

Receiving excess doses of fluoride during the formation of teeth causes fluorosis. This can occur by eating or swallowing excessive amounts of toothpaste or exceeding the dose when taking fluoride tablets. It can also occur where there is excess fluoride in natural water supplies or a combination of all three. In extreme or severe cases of fluorosis the teeth are unsightly and may need treatment to improve their appearance.

Water fluoridation alone does not cause fluorosis but it can happen in combination with other sources of fluoride.

FRACTURES

  1. Fractures to teeth can happen as a result of “once off” acute trauma or from repeated low grade stress to the tooth over a longer period
  2. Acuteinjuries commonly include:
    • Motor Vehicle Acidents (MVA’s)
    • Sports injuries including swimming pools, bikes and skateboards
    • Falls
    • Rough play at home or school including elbows, heads and beds
    • Alcohol induced fights
    • Accidental bites into fork, bone, pips, stones
    • Eating hard lollies, ice, pork crackling and chewing pencils and pens
  3. Chronicinjuries arise mostly from bruxism (grinding) on previously filled or decayed and therefore weakened teeth see Cracked Tooth Syndrome
  4. Fractures can:
    • Be minor or severe involving the nerve or root
    • Involve Enamel only; Enamel and Dentine; or Enamel, Dentine and the Pulp
    • Be horizontal, oblique (diagonal) or vertical
    • Involveknocked outor displaced teeth (Trauma)
  5. Although fractures may not be evident on X raysthey are usually necessary to help diagnose, locate, and measure the extent of root fracture and may be taken periodically
  6. Treatment will depend on the extent of damage:
    • Minor cracks — Also called "craze lines," these are superficial fractures that affect only the tooth's enamel, the outer white part of the tooth. Minor cracks rarely need treatment. However, your dentist may lightly polish the area to smooth out any rough spots
    • Chips — Minor chips don't always need treatment, itself may not even be painful or sensitive to food or temperature. risk of pulp injury is small, and treatment is not urgent sharp or rough tooth edges irritating the cheek and tongue although your dentist may recommend repairing the damage with filling material to prevent it from getting worse or to make the tooth look better. If the chip is in the front of the mouth, your dentist probably will use a tooth-colored filling. Often, if the chip is very small, your dentist may lightly sand the area to smooth out any rough spots. A small amount of orthodontic wax or sugarless gum can be placed over the rough edge until the dentist can be reached
    • Cusp fractures — These affect the pointed chewing surfaces (the cusps) of the teeth. They usually do not affect the pulp and are unlikely to cause significant pain. Deeper fractures may be sensitive to cold temperature or food. Prolonged exposure of dentin to oral bacteria can cause the death of the inner pulp tissue. Death of pulp tissue can lead to serious tooth infection and abscess. Therefore, fractures involving the dentin should be treated promptly (within days of the injury). Treatment involves placing a sedative dressing over the exposed dentin, followed by a dental filling, a porcelain or gold crown, or a "cap" to protect the pulp of the tooth. A follow up X-ray in three to six months may be needed to be sure that the pulp has not died
    • They may interfere with normal chewing, however, so your dentist may need to repair the damage. Minor cusp fractures sometimes are repaired by filing the surfaces of the tooth to restore the shape of the tooth. Frequently, these fractures will require an onlay or Crown, in which the tooth is covered with a metal or porcelain material

    • Serious fractures — should be treated promptly.These are fractures of the teeth that are deep enough to expose the nerve tissue. Usually, the broken part of the tooth will bleed. They almost always cause the tooth to hurt and be sensitive. This type of fracture will require root canal treatment to remove the exposed nerve. A crown likely will be needed to restore the tooth
    • Cracked tooth — This type of fracture involves the whole tooth, from the chewing surface all the way down toward the nerve. However, in this type of fracture the two pieces have not come apart. This type of crack is similar to a crack that may form in an automobile windshield; the pieces remain in place, but the crack gradually spreads. Cracks can sometimes be repaired with filling material, although the tooth often will need a crown to prevent the crack from getting worse. If the pulp (nerve and other live tissues) is damaged, you may need a root canal as well
    • Split tooth — This means that the tooth has split vertically into two separate parts. Some teeth, such as your back teeth (molars), have more than one root. It may be possible to keep one of the roots, which will then be covered with a crown. First, root canal treatment will be needed. Second, the root or roots that will not be kept are removed with a minor surgical procedure. Third, a crown will be made to cover the root and replace the tooth. Often, however, the tooth will have to be extracted
    • Vertical tooth fractures or split root — These are cracks that start in the root of the tooth and extend upward toward the chewing surface. Vertical tooth fractures are often painful because the tissues surrounding the root may be inflamed or infected. In most cases, the tooth will have to be removed
    • Decay-induced fracture — In this case, the tooth has fractured or crumbled because a cavity weakened the tooth from the inside out. Your dentist will evaluate the cavity and recommend the best way to restore the tooth
  7. Some  require periodontal surgery If the facture is below the gum line, close to or below the bone holding the tooth in the jaw,  At SAS Dental  lasers are used to reshape bone and gum to create enough room to place the crown
  8. Teeth with horizontal fractures near the tip of the root may not need extraction. However, root canal treatment for the injured tooth may be required in the future if symptoms of pulp death and tooth infection appear
  9. Prevention of dental injuries involves aligning protruding front teeth by dental bracesand using face masks andmouthguardswhile participating in sports. Mouthguards have been shown to reduce trauma not only to teeth, gums, and the surrounding jaw bone but also to reduce injury to the temporomandibular joints (TMJ) and to reduce the intensity and number of head concussions. Mouthguards also reduce pressure and bone deformation of the skull when a force is directed to the chin.ecommended that mouthguards be worn, not only for organized football, but also for unorganized football, baseball, basketball, racquetball, soccer, ice, field, and street hockey, wrestling, boxing, martial arts, volleyball, rollerblading, skating, skateboarding, and bicycling.

fractures

The average person can exert 70-100 kilograms of force on their back teeth. This is about nine times the amount of force that can be exerted on the front teeth
If the contact area on a filling is 0.1mm² then over 1 million PSI of stress is placed on the filling in function
Therefore to provide proper protection from Fractureon back teeth that have been root canaled, crowns should be placed

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